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    Refractories also have to be resistant to the chemicals that will be released during the manufacturing process. There are many different types of materials that can be utilized in combination with one another to create refractories that can stand up to different chemical processes.

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    used refractory materials from production vessels help to understand the wear mechanisms and process challenges. Considering the production processes of the various ferroalloys the production steps can be divided into ore preparation, reduction, refining and casting. These process stages include various pyrometallurgical vessels, each re-

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